Caslon Language Education Wikimedia (B)

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Caslon Language Education Index

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

balanced approach

  • An approach to literacy instruction that recognizes the need for some direct instruction in reading skills but emphasizes the importance of providing such instruction in meaningful contexts to ensure that students are able to comprehend and use what they read for authentic purposes. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright
  • An approach to literacy instruction that balances attention to reading and writing and includes modeled, shared, and guided reading and writing instruction prior to expectations of independent

reading and writing. Differentiating Instruction and Assessment: A Guide for K–12 Teachers, second edition by Shelley Fairbairn and Stephaney Jones-Vo

balanced assessment

balanced bilingual

banking model of teaching

baseline data

basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)

basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)–cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) distinction

BASIC model

before, during, after (BDA)


  • Tendency toward a particular ideology, result, or preference. When applied to tests, it implies that the test systematically favors or disfavors a particular group of students on a particular criterion not considered relevant for outcomes, such as race or gender. Foundations for Multilingualism in Education by Ester de Jong
  • In testing, refers to the unfair advantages or disadvantages that may be given to certain students that can affect their performance. For example, a test given in English will be biased in favor of proficient English speakers and biased against students who lack proficiency in English. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright

bidirectional transfer

big idea(s)

bi-level analysis paradigm

bilingual-as-resource orientation

bilingual education

  • Providing educational content in two languages. Bilingual education can take many forms, but all of these are planned educational programs that use two languages for instructional purposes. All U.S. bilingual programs aim for eventual high English-proficiency and academic-achievement levels as important goals (some bilingual programs have additional goals). The different types of bilingual education programs usually are defined by their goals and the balance of teaching time between English and the non-English language. Compare to developmental bilingual education (DBE) program and dual language programs. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

Bilingual Education Act

bilingual education teacher

bilingual first language acquisition

bilingual immersion

bilingual learner(s) (BLs)

bilingual pivotal portfolio

bilingual program


  • The ability to understand and use two (or more) languages in particular contexts and for particular purposes. Bilinguals can have the same levels of proficiency in both languages (e.g., advanced in both) or different levels of proficiency (e.g., advanced in one and beginning or intermediate in the other). Bilinguals do not necessarily have the same level of proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in the languages they know. Teaching Adolescent English Language Learners by Nancy Cloud, Judah Lakin, Erin Leininger, Laura Maxwell
  • The state of being able to use two or more languages. When used informally, this term may be applied to someone who easily speaks and understands two languages very well. In school settings, the term “bilingual” often has more clearly specified criteria. Knowing and using more than two languages is called multilingualism. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth


  • The ability to speak two languages fluently.

bilingual strategies


biliteracy acompañamiento

biliteracy instruction

biliteracy unit(s)

biliteracy zones/biliterate reading zones

biliterate benchmark

biliterate reading

  • The process used to make sense of texts in two languages. It involves using a reservoir of bilingual competencies, strategies, and knowledge in interaction and collaboration with others to comprehend texts. In Literacy Squared, biliterate reading instruction in K–5 bilingual classrooms includes interactive and explicit teaching of a variety of reading skills and strategies, including: foundational reading skills (e.g., concepts of print, decoding, fluency), reading comprehension skills (e.g., describe main ideas or major events in a text and central lesson, including key supporting details; distinguish elements and structure of literary and informational texts), comprehension strategies (e.g., activate prior knowledge, make predictions, make personal and intertextual connections, cognate study), and reading of a range of text types of grade-level appropriate complexity. Children are taught how to apply these skills and strategies across languages and to see similarities and language specific differences. Biliteracy from the Start by Kathy Escamilla, Susan Hopewell, Sandra Butvilofsky, Wendy Sparrow, Lucinda Soltero-González, Olivia Ruiz-Figueroa, and Manuel Escamilla

biliterate writing

biliterate writing potential

biliterate writing trajectory

Bridge, the

Bridge anchor chart


Brown v. Board of Education