Caslon Language Education Wikimedia (D)

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Caslon Language Education Index

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

data-driven decision making

  • The use of any form of evidence or information (i.e., data) for any type of decision making (e.g., on the classroom, program, school, program, district, community, state, Federal levels for summative and/or formative purposes). Our broad use of this term stands in contrast to a narrow notion of data-driven decision making using the results of standardized test results in English for all types of education decision making. English Language Learners at School, second edition by Else Hamayan and Rebecca Field

data-driven instruction

declamación de poesía (poetry recitation)

descriptive analysis

developmental bilingual education (DBE)

Developmental Reading Assessment 2+ (DRA2+) test

developmentally appropriate practice



dialogue journal


  • Instructional strategy in which the teacher dictates words, sentences, or paragraphs that are familiar to the students, and the students write what the teacher is saying. The dictado is holistic; it teaches and develops spelling, punctuation, and syntax and grammar (and other word-study skills) in a way that is meaningful and comprehensive. Teaching for Biliteracy by Karen Beeman and Cheryl Urow

differentiated instruction



disciplinary language


  • Patterns of language use (both oral and written) common to specific contexts in which a language is used. For example, the discourse pattern in a conversation among scientists differs from the discourse pattern in a negotiation for the purchase of a used car. Teaching for Biliteracy by Karen Beeman and Cheryl Urow
  • As defined and distinguished by Gee (2012), discourse (with a lowercase d) refers to language in use or connected stretches of language that make sense, such as conversations, stories, reports, arguments and essays. Discourse (with a capital D) is made up of distinctive ways of speaking/listening, and also often writing/reading, coupled with distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, and believing with other people and with various objects, tools, and technologies to enact specific socially recognizable identities engaged in specific socially recognizable activities. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright

discrepancy model


dominant language


dual discrepancy model

dual language

dual-language bilingual education (DLBE)

dual language books

dual language education

dual language learner (DLL)

  • Any child from birth through age 8 who has a home language other than English, regardless of what type of program he or she may be in. Whether they have been learning in two languages from birth or began life with one language and came to a new community or school where they begin to learn a new language, children in the early years are still in the process of learning about language and continue to need support in both their home language and English. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

dual language program(s)

  • Schools or classrooms that are specifically established to provide education in two languages to support bilingualism and biliteracy. One-way dual language immersion provides instruction in the two languages for children who enter the program speaking only one of the languages being taught. Two-way dual language immersion programs enroll children who speak either one or both of the languages being taught so they can all learn their own and one another’s languages. The goal of this type of program is to achieve desired academic outcomes and encourage cross-cultural communicative competence. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

dynamic assessment(s)

dynamic bilingualism

dynamic translanguaging progressions

  • A flexible construct that teachers can use to look holistically at the bilingual performances of their students. Teachers can also place their bilingual students’ performances as more or less experienced along those progressions. Teachers’ evaluations of students’ bilingual performances are always grounded in the communicative circumstance at hand, and always distinguish between general linguistic and specific linguistic performances. The Translanguaging Classroom by Ofelia García, Susana Ibarra Johnson, and Kate Seltzer