Caslon Language Education Wikimedia (P)

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Caslon Language Education Index

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

paired literacy instruction

parental involvement

partner reading

Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Career (PARCC)

  • Most states voluntarily adopted new, more rigorous academic standards and teachers have been using them in their daily instruction. As a result, states needed high-quality assessments aligned to those standards that would test students of all achievement levels on what they are learning.

peer assessment


performance assessment

  • A form of assessment in which students are evaluated on their ability to perform a specific academic task or set of related tasks (e.g., use oral language to role play interactions at the market, write an essay, conduct a science experiment, measure and compare a set of objects using a scale). Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, second edition by Wayne E. Wright

performance indicator

  • A written statement that describes what students must be able to do to indicate their learning of content according to their level of proficiency. In WIDA Consortium states, a performance indicator consists of a description of the linguistic complexity (amount and quality of speech or writing) for a given situation, the level of vocabulary (specificity of words or phrases for a given context), and the language control a student must exhibit (the comprehensibility of the communication based on the number and type of errors).Teaching Adolescent English Language Learners by Nancy Cloud, Judah Lakin, Erin Leininger, Laura Maxwell

personal word book

  • A book provided for each student that contains a list of high-frequency words and other words students commonly ask for when they write, with space under each letter section for students to record their own words as they progress through the school year. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, second edition by Wayne E. Wright


phonological awareness

  • Understanding of how words sound, apart from what words mean. For example, understanding that the word “kitchen” has two spoken parts (syllables), that the word “bed” rhymes with “bread,” and that the words “cat” and “king” begin with the same sound (Burns, Griffin, & Snow, 1999). Teaching for Biliteracy by Karen Beeman and Cheryl Urow


picture walk

pluralist discourses

portfolio assessment



praxis-based professional development (PD)

preview-view-review strategy

primary language

  • The language that is determined to be stronger or used more frequently by the student; also called the “dominant language.” In certain federal and state government documents, the term primary home language other than English (PHLOTE) is used. In some contexts, however, this term is used simply to indicate the language the child started to learn first. It is important to be clear about the meaning of this term when using it in documents or conversations. See also Dominant language. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

primary language instruction

primary language support (PLS)

primary trait scoring

principle of affirming identities

principle of educational equity

principle of promoting additive bi/multilingualism

principle of structuring for integration

process writing

professional learning communities (PLCs)

proficiency (level/stage of)

proficient English learners

Proposition 203

Proposition 227

pull factors

pull-in ESL

pull-out ESL

  • A format for ESL or ELD services in which the teacher pulls the child out of the classroom and works with one or more DLLs. In some cases, this support is conducted by providing activities that are unrelated to what is happening in the child’s main classroom and cannot be observed or repeated by the general education teacher. Pull-out strategies are more effective when there is ample time and support for collaboration between the ESL and classroom teacher so they can plan activities that will be relevant to the child for that class and will feed effectively into what the child would have learned by remaining in class. Compare to Consultation method and Push-in supports/instructions/methods. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

push factors

push-in ESL

  • A format for ESL or ELD services in which the ESL teacher goes into the DLL child’s regular classroom to provide services, ideally blending with and capitalizing on the curricular activities in the classroom. In this model, the child does not lose learning time leaving the classroom and returning, and the teacher can observe the types of supports provided by the ESL teacher so they can be repeated at other times. Although there are advantages to this model, it necessitates that language support services are provided in the midst of a busy classroom where the ESL and classroom teachers must find ways to collaborate. Push-in is a form of co-teaching, with widely varying levels of actual teacher-to-teacher planning and collaboration. Compare to Consultation method and Pull-out supports/instructions/methods. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth