Caslon Language Education Wikimedia (C)

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Caslon Language Education Index

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

calco (calque)

Canadian immersion programs

Castañeda v. Pickard

choral reading

circular discourse pattern

circumstantial bilingualism

Civil Rights Act (1974)

clustering

code-switching

cognate(s)

cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)

  • The second stage of the course of language development for English language learners/emergent bilinguals as explained by Cummins (1981). It is preceded by basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS). This formulation was very helpful in alerting educators to the possibility that second language learners who sounded fluent might still struggle with many language tasks. Nonetheless, it was widely unrecognized that the BICS–CALP sequence is neither universal nor inevitable. From 2.4 (Snow) in Common Core, Bilingual and English Language Learners edited by Guadalupe Valdés, Kate Menken, and Mariana Castro

cognitive approaches

coherence

collaboration

collaborative inquiry

collaborative reading

collaborative writing

collocations

common assessments

Common Core State Standards (CCSS)

common measures

common underlying proficiency (CUP)

communicative competence

communicative function

  • The purposes for which language is used. Includes three broad functions: communication (the transmission of information), integration (expression of affiliation and belonging to a particular social group), and expression (the display of individual feelings, ideas, and personality). Examples include asking for or giving information, describing past actions, expressing feelings, and expressing regret. Teaching Adolescent English Language Learners by Nancy Cloud, Judah Lakin, Erin Leininger, Laura Maxwell

communicative language teaching (CLT)

community-based language schools

comparative analysis

comprehensible input

  • Language input provided in the classroom in way that is easier for DLL students to understand. This includes the intentional choice of familiar words along with scaffolding cues, such as visual or gestural supports, for understanding new words. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth
  • A term coined by Krashen (1985) that describes the scaffolding process in which teachers explicitly adjust their speech and use instructional supports so that new information is understood. ESL teachers implement comprehensible input by explaining concepts and academic tasks clearly. They use speech appropriate for students’ language proficiency (slower rate, gestures, simple sentences) without using slang or idioms. They use visuals, graphic organizers, word sorts, word maps, and Venn diagrams to teach vocabulary words and support instruction throughout the lessons. Implementing Effective Instruction for English Language Learners by Suzanne Wagner and Tamara King

comprehensible output

  • Oral or written language produced by a second language speaker that is comprehensible to the individual or individuals with whom he or she is communicating. Second language learners’ need to produce comprehensible output pushes them to pay attention to gaps in their proficiency and thus may prompt them to notice more in the input and motivate them to learn the language they need to express their intended meanings. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, second edition by Wayne E. Wright

comprehensive language education programs

concept attainment

  • Instructional strategy in which students are provided with a series of appropriate and inappropriate examples of a new concept. Students analyze these appropriate and inappropriate examples to formulate a definition of the concept (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956). Teaching for Biliteracy by Karen Beeman and Cheryl Urow

concepts of print

  • Refers to such reading-related issues as understanding the differences between letters and words and words and spaces; knowing where to start reading and how to do a return sweep to continue reading the next line; and understanding the basic features of a book, such as title, front and back cover, and even how to hold it properly. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, second edition by Wayne E. Wright

concurrent translation

connecting language environments

consultation method

  • An alternative to push-in or pull-out services, in which an English as a second language (ESL) teacher provides consultative support to the classroom teacher but does not provide direct services to a particular child. This method is used in some early childhood programs, particularly at the preschool level. The ESL teacher assists in assessing the child’s language support needs and collaborates with the classroom teacher to plan the teaching strategies to meet the child’s needs. Supports are not provided in isolated periods of direct service, which means they can be embedded in the child’s school day, all day, every day, by the classroom teacher and any other specialists who might work with that child. Compare to pull-out supports/instructions/methods and push-in supports/instructions/methods. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

content allocation

content-area journal

content-based instruction (CBI)

contextual information

continua of biliteracy model

continuous progress monitoring

continuum of services framework

contrastive analysis

convergent biliterate model of language and literacy

convergent monoliterate model of language and literacy

conversational fluency/conversational language proficiency

  • The level of informal fluency in a language that is sufficient to support conversations and informal interactions, but is not quite at the level needed for full participation in academic learning—also known as playground fluency. Compare to Academic fluency. Young Dual Language Learners by Karen N. Nemeth

cooperative learning

corpus planning

corriente

criterion-referenced measures

criterion-referenced test

critical metalinguistic awareness

critical thinking skills

cross-cultural competence

cross-language connections

cross-linguistic transfer

cross-sectional data

crosswalks

cultural bias

cultural competence

cultural distance

culture shock

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