Caslon Language Education Wikimedia (T)

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Caslon Language Education Index

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

targeted support and improvement (TSI)

teacher-led small groups

Teacher Assistance Team

teaching for transfer

teaching to the potential

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)

test bias


text complexity


  • A method to teach content, conventions, grammar, and spelling in an integrated way. It involves having the teacher dictate a series of phrases or sentences to the students. The students and teacher then collaborate to create a corrected model of the focus text. Students amend their sentences using a two-color system to draw attention to errors. The same phrases or sentences are repeated throughout the week, giving students multiple opportunities to practice and learn the targeted content, conventions, grammar, and spelling. TheDictado is adapted from Latin American schools and provides multiple opportunities for within-language and cross-language metalinguistic development. Biliteracy from the Start by Kathy Escamilla, Susan Hopewell, Sandra Butvilofsky, Wendy Sparrow, Lucinda Soltero-González, Olivia Ruiz-Figueroa, and Manuel Escamilla

thematic teaching

thematic word chart

think-tank model

  • An organization that performs research and advocacy.

Tier 1 Intervention

  • Level of core instructional programming or universal intervention at which the instruction employed is available to all students.

Tier 2 Intervention

  • Instructional safety net that works in concert with Tier 1 by adding both time and instructional intensity into the school day, those students provided with Tier 2 interventions are typically given more individualized intervention (Howard, 2009).

Tier 3 Intervention

  • Level of intensive intervention. This level of support may entail specialized individualized interventions for students with significant needs (Fletcher, Denton, Fuchs, & Vaughn, 2005; Fuchs, 2002; Howard, 2009).

threatened languages

threshold hypothesis

time-on-task argument

Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

  • Federal program that provides funding to local school districts to improve the academic achievement of disadvantaged students first passed in 1965. That Act is reauthorized by Congress from time to time, and often given a new name.

Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

top-down perspective

total physical response (TPR)

trajectory toward biliteracy


transitional bilingual education (TBE)

transitional bilingual program


  • In its original conceptualization, refers to the practice in which bilinguals receive information in one language and then use or apply it in the other language. In its expanded sense, refers to the natural and normal ways bilinguals use their languages in their everyday lives to make sense of their bilingual worlds. In teaching, refers to pedagogical practices that use bilingualism as a resource rather than ignore it or perceive it as a problem. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright

translanguaging classroom

translanguaging corriente

translanguaging design

translanguaging design cycle

translanguaging objectives

translanguaging pedagogy

translanguaging strategies

  • Strategies that allow students to draw on the languages and dialects that make up their linguistic repertoire. Students and teachers can leverage these linguistic resources to support student comprehension of complex content and texts, and to engage in academic tasks. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright

translanguaging shifts

translanguaging stance

translingual practice


two-way bridge

two-way dual-language bilingual education (DLBE)

two-language learner

two-way immersion (TWI)

  • A dual language bilingual education program that serves both English speakers and ELLs from the same language background. Variations emphasize the amount of time devoted to each language. In a 50/50 model, half of the instruction is in English and half is in the other target language across several grade levels. In a 90/10 model, instruction begins in kindergarten and 1st grade with 90% of instruction in the home language, and 10% in English. As students move up in grade level, the amount of home language instruction decreases, and the amount of English instruction increases until both make up 50% of instruction time. Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners, third edition by Wayne E. Wright